DNA evidence clearly shows the founding population of New Zealand must have numbered in the hundreds. In M. A. Katzenberg & S. Saunders (Eds. Demography, The midden assemblage was equally rich and diverse, containing the bones of many extinct species of bird (including moa) as well as sea mammals, domestic dogs, fish and shellfish. Polynesian Settlement of New Zealand Around 950 AD, it is believed Polynesian settlers used subtropical weather systems, star constellations, water currents, and animal migration to find their way from their native islands, in central Polynesia to New Zealand. They came from central east Polynesia. Explain the differences between Melanesian, Micronesian and Polynesian. Many New Zealand species may have been heading for slow extinction after Polynesian settlement. The rise of the King Movement. Ancient voyaging: from 50,000 to 25,000 BCE people from Asia sailed simple rafts from island to island, reaching Near Oceania (Australia, New Guine… 2012). This clearly indicates that these individuals were not full siblings or the descendants of female siblings. The whence of the Maori: Some 19th century exercises in scientific method. The Group 1 individuals also differed significantly from the other individuals in terms of strontium isotope ratios, although these could represent ‘… a wide variety of potential bedrock sources within New Zealand and abroad, including a mixture of basalt and limestone typical of Oceanic islands in TEP [tropical East Polynesia] and the North Island of New Zealand’ (Kinaston et al. Current Anthropology, 25, 24–37. 2 span no more than a century but are distributed over 12,000 km of coastline, from the temperate and sub-tropical north to the sub-Antarctic coastlines of Stewart Island and Foveaux Strait. Saved from planetware.com. Auckland: Oxford University Press. Thus it is most likely that Wairau Bar was settled in the first decades of the 14th century—not necessarily the earliest occupation site in the country, but settled close to the beginning of the colonisation phase. By 1500 AD ‘Classic’ Maori society—the society encountered by the 18th century explorer Captain James Cook—was developing (Davidson 1984; Green 1963, 1975). Colonisation had to be self-supporting and this was achieved through three processes. Anderson, A. Pacific Anthropological Records, 11. The Pacific population in New Zealand as recorded in the 2013 census was 95,941, this figure is 7.4 percent of New Zealand’s population. Anderson, A. Immigration acts have long been analysed as instrumental to the working of the modern nation-state. 46, 207–218. It was not until 1642 that Europeans became aware the country existed. without trees 1722. Honolulu: Bishop Museum. The location appears bleak and windswept today, with poor soils and no fresh water, but for colonisers equipped with efficient coastal and offshore water craft its location had great economic and strategic advantage. Katzenberg, M. A. Aotearoa consists of an estimated 600 islands. Iwi: The dynamics of Maori tribal organisation from c.1769 to c.1945. The settlement of Central and East Polynesia was separated from the Lapita expansion by over 1500 years. Auckland: Auckland University Press. Mass Migration and the Polynesian Settlement of New Zealand, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10963-017-9110-y. (1991). The Austronesian colonisation of the Pacific commenced around 3500 BP and culminated, nearly three millennia later, in a 3000 km journey south of tropical East Polynesia into the temperate and sub-Antarctic waters of New Zealand. Because of those special features of the site noted above, it has long been imagined (Anderson 2014; Davidson 1984; Duff 1950) that Wairau Bar played some singular role in New Zealand’s early history. The extinction of the mega fauna (moa) seems to have occurred quickly, within 100 years. Regardless of whether there was a small resident population in New Zealand before 1300 AD, the archaeological record of the 14th century cannot be explained as a result of centuries (e.g., Sutton 1987)—still less decades—of population growth from this currently invisible colony. doi:10.1353/hub.2005.0045. 30, 286–305. This ‘discovery’ stage involves the initial location and perhaps exploration of a new land followed by return voyaging. Activity: Show the kids the map from the textbook/pdf that I have attached below. Correspondence to Whyte, A. L. H., Marshall, S. J., & Chambers, G. K. (2005). Wellington: Reed. Journal of Pacific Archaeology, Duggan, A. T., Evans, B., Friedlaender, F. R., Friedlaender, J. S., Koki, G., Merriwether, D. A., et al. Subsequently Jacomb et al. Reilly, M., & Walter, R. (in press). Before much progress can be made in establishing the effects of Polynesian settlement, a 'baseline' must be set for 'New Zealand without humans' even though it is difficult to be sure exactly what the date should be. The Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology, New Zealand archaeology and its Polynesian connections. A simple matrix of linear distance between contemporary settlement zones provides more empirical evidence of the site’s centrality (Table 1). Maderspacher, F. (2017). Anai’o: The archaeology of a 14th century Polynesian community in the Cook Islands., New Zealand Archaeological Association Monograph. Extensive kūmara gardens supported relatively large settlements. For the purposes of this paper, however, we define a colonisation phase as a period approximately congruent with the 14th century AD, during which migrants from tropical East Polynesia and two or three generations of their descendants established a stable and self-reliant colony in New Zealand. Simmons, D. R., & Biggs, B. We first look at the evidence for mass migration and then we look at colonisation behaviours through the lens of the 14th century archaeological record. Despite taking it to other settlements, the Polynesians didn’t take the chicken to New Zealand. In the New Zealand case, where transport costs are extraordinarily high, the body of information circulating in Hawaiiki must have been especially compelling to inspire a mass migration event. (2008). Golson, J. 1. it weighs 64,000 tonnes. Dispersal centers in East Polynesia, with special reference to the Society and Marquesas Islands. Richard Walter. 3. the North or Maori face overlooks the harbour and the cliff-like walls symbolise the sea, hills and sky. Long-distance exchange and island colonization: The Lapita case. This endeavour met with limited success. (2006). Kinaston, R. L., Walter, R., Jacomb, C., Brooks, E., Tayles, N., Halcrow, S. E., et al. ), Biological anthropology of the human skeleton (pp. Mass migration … International Migration Review, Seals and the large, flightless moa bird were their main prey, until moa were hunted to extinction. ISBN 978-0-473-14476-0 Polynesian settlement of New Zealand and the impacts of volcanism on early Maori society: an update David J. Lowe Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Waikato, Hamilton Timing of Polynesian settlement Models of settlement Human Biology, Kirch, P. V. (1988). Remote Oceania is the islands to the east of the Solomon Islands group such as Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga, Aotearoa (New Zealand), Society Islands, Easter Island, and the Marquesas. Ouvrage collectif en hommage à J. Garanger (pp. After the British assumed formal control of New Zealand in 1840, European settlement and government began to alarm the Maori, especially in North Island. It is believed that Polynesian migration was planned and deliberate, with many waka hourua making return journeys to Hawaiki. Rolett, B. V.(1998). Many New Zealand place names, preserved by later generations of Māori people, recall his journey. Zonation map showing Wairau Bar in a prime location in relation to key resources and coastal communication networks. Excavations also revealed small tools: tattooing chisels, awls, needles, hammer stones, files and abraders. Honolulu: Bishop Museum. Journal of Archaeological Science, Journal of the Polynesian Society, This final expansion across the Pacific began only 1200–1000 years ago and ended around 750 years ago with the settlement of Rapanui/Easter Island and Aotearoa/New Zealand. Montgomery, J. Pool, D. I. In D. G. Sutton (Ed. High-precision dating and ancient DNA profiling of moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) eggshell documents a complex feature at Wairau Bar and refines the chronology of New Zealand settlement by Polynesians.  The first settlers came to New Zealand from tropical Polynesia and adapted to a temperate environment while preserving many of their old practices. In A. Anderson, J. Binney, & A. Harris (Eds. 1998) and linguistic (Clark 1979) evidence suggests a region encompassing at least the southern Cook, Austral and eastern Society Islands (Fig. Stable isotope analyses in human nutritional ecology. 1–42). 2. it has enough reinforcing steel to stretch from Wellington to Sydney, Australia (2,224 km or 1,382 miles). 95, 9047–9052. New Zealand Archaeological Association Newsletter, 2010). Knapp, M., Horsburgh, K. A., Prost, S., Stanton, J. Much of the archaeological evidence we will be drawing on in support of our strategic migration model comes from excavations at the site of Wairau Bar in the northern South Island (Fig. Turner, M. T. (2000). The most obvious argument for mass migration lies in the patterns of 14th century site distribution. In J. D. Jennings (Ed. The first New Zealanders: Patterns of diet and mobility revealed through isotope analysis. In S. Duncan, G. Leoni, L. Paterson, M. Rātima, M. Reilly, & L. Carter, (Eds. Humans have altered natural patterns of fire for millennia, but the impact of human-set fires is thought to have been slight in wet closed-canopy forests. Several decades later there is still no convincing direct evidence of humans on the New Zealand landscape any earlier than 1300 AD, although some archaeologists believe that earlier horizons are yet to be found in New Zealand, or are represented in known sites at the low-probability ends of some radiocarbon calibration curves. Group 1 comprises eight individuals (five males, one female, and two undetermined) and is considered to represent the earliest burial phase at the site. The motifs of Māori art in New Zealand clearly resemble the decoration on Lapita pottery. The first settlements of New Zealand are shrouded in myth and mystery. Quaternary Science Reviews, By the late 1830s New Zealand had been joined to Europe, and European settlers landed by the score. The latter is not an option in New Zealand. Walter, R. (1998). The Māori population before European contact may have reached 100,000. We would like to acknowledge the helpful comments and criticisms offered by Karen Greig, Atholl Anderson and anonymous referees. 93–104). The Māori (/ ˈ m aʊ r i /; Māori pronunciation: [ˈmaːɔɾi] ()) are the indigenous Polynesian people of mainland New Zealand.Māori originated with settlers from eastern Polynesia, who arrived in New Zealand in several waves of waka (canoe) voyages between roughly 1320 and 1350. A particular focus has been the racial exclusions and restrictions that were adopted by aspirationally white, new world nation-states: Australia, New Zealand… Mass Migration and the Polynesian Settlement of New Zealand. Mass Migration and the Polynesian Settlement of New Zealand. There followed a formative period of adaptation and population growth over several centuries, during which time the Polynesian settlers explored new landscapes, modified their tropical subsistence systems and learned to exploit the resource base of a new climate and ecology. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequences from the first New Zealanders. Jacomb et al. Smith, S. P., Whatahoro, H. T., Matorohanga, T., & Pohuhu, N. (1913). (2003). Abel Tasman founded New Zealand 1642. (2002). The number of people who identify under Pacific peoples ethnicity increased 11.3 percent from the 2006 Census. The illustrations were made by Les O’Neil of the Department of Anthropology and Archaeology at the University of Otago. The Group 1 individuals display a similar dietary trend to individuals from Hanamiai, a colonisation-phase site in the Marquesas, tropical East Polynesia (Kinaston et al. But these are precisely the issues that oral tradition addresses and it is now time to take a more nuanced and critical look at these traditions in order to further our understanding of migration, colonisation, and the relationship between early New Zealand and Hawaiiki society. Other demographic and biological factors also lend support to a 14th century mass migration. Like the Hawaiiki network upon which it was modelled, this became the medium for the dissemination of raw materials, manufactured products such as stone adzes, information, and social support. Geophysical survey had identified a cluster of five circular features at the site, one of which was selected for test excavation and proved to be a boulder-lined oven pit, 6 m in diameter and 1.2 m deep, refilled with midden (Brooks et al. Auckland: Longman Paul. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.15.9047. Hoboken: Wiley. Concepts of central place research in archaeology. In terms of pinning down the origin of the voyaging canoes that actually landed in New Zealand, archaeological, biological (Matisoo-Smith et al. volume 30, pages351–376(2017)Cite this article. Discussions of the causes of migration have traditionally revolved around the concepts of push and pull: ‘in general, migration is most likely to occur when there are negative (push) stresses in the home region and positive (pull) attractions in the destination region, and the transportation costs between the two are acceptable’ (Lee 1966, p. 899). ), Studies in Oceanic culture history (Vol. The results were interpreted as indicating commencement of occupation in the late 13th century AD. A review of the prehistoric sequence in the Auckland province. Journal of the Polynesian Society, A., Sutton, D. G., & Molloy, M. A. 3, 1–12. ... not the consequence of gradual demographic growth out of a currently unidentified earlier phase of settlement. The feature dated by Jacomb et al. 11. Culture change in prehistoric New Zealand. Hawaiʻi is the northernmost vertex of the Polynesian Triangle, a region of the Pacific Ocean anchored by three island groups: Hawaiʻi, Rapa Nui (Easter Island), and Aotearoa (New Zealand). (2014). Hogg, A. G., Hua, Q., Blackwell, P. G., Niu, M., Buck, C. E., Guilderson, T. P., et al. London: Taylor & Francis. 25, 13–58. Early years; A growing settlement: 1825 to 1839; British immigration and the New Zealand Company; The immigrants: 1840 to 1852; Settlement in the provinces: 1853 to 1870; Auckland’s immigrants: 1853 to 1870; Miners; The great migration: 1871 to 1885; The immigrants of the great migration; Depression: 1885 to 1900; Migration: 1900 to 1914; Between the wars; The … I direct a long-term study of the Polynesian settlement of Aotearoa which has been funded by three Marsden grants over the last 10 years. Polynesian settlement of New Zealand and the impacts of volcanism on early Mā ori society: an update. 1, pp. (2014) published the results of a high-precision dating study of a single cooking and discard event, based on moa eggshell dates using Bayesian calibration. We contend that this was a planned migration, based on prior knowledge of the location of New Zealand, and that it involved a number of interacting communities within a zone of regular interaction in central East Polynesia. Mayor Island lies 28 km from the mainland in the Bay of Plenty and contains thick reefs and boulder deposits of obsidian of very high quality. In Hawaiiki these craft were the medium by which communication and exchange networks linked communities on distant islands and archipelagos (Weisler et al. The navigator credited in some traditions with discovering New Zealand is Kupe. 3, 14–31. Oral histories were typically structured around the principles of tribal organisation that prevailed in the 19th century and the stories revolved around the actions of semi-autonomous lineage groups descended from eponymous ancestors acting under the leadership of powerful chiefs (Ballara 1998). In the 19th and early 20th century traditionalist scholars such as S. Percy Smith (Smith 1904; Smith et al. Instead, it records a mass movement of people. 2011, figure 31). The material culture of this region and time period is also sufficiently similar and distinctive to be referred to as the Archaic or Early East Polynesian assemblage (see above). It included many nuclear families but recruitment was over a wide area, and the organising principle of the community and of recruitment was religious philosophy rather than kinship. Without more precise strontium baseline maps from New Zealand and the Pacific it is not possible to determine where the Group 1 individuals spent time prior to their arrival at Wairau Bar, but the overall evidence, including the archaeology, makes the assumption of a youth spent in Hawaiiki reasonable. European migration provided a major influx following the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. Polynesian Migration. Schwarcz, H. P., & Schoeninger, M. J. The Prehistory of New Zealand. Reciting whakapapa (genealogies) was an important way to communicate knowledge. The Group 1 individuals all shared a geologically similar origin and a similar diet, with less diversity of protein sources, probably depending on meat sourced from a lower trophic level (i.e., not marine mammal). Green, R. C., & Kirch, P. V. (1997). Dunedin: New Zealand Archaeological Association. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Identifying the proximate cause of an archaeological migration event is notoriously difficult (Anthony 1990, p. 898), although this is a domain where oral history and tradition make claims to knowledge. McCullough, J. M., & Barton, E. Y. Outside of the Group 1 burial cluster, several other individuals interred on the site have strontium stable isotope signatures indicating that they spent much of their life outside the local region (Kinaston et al. Reinvestigating a key site for Polynesian prehistory: New results from the Hane dune site, Ua Huka (Marquesas). Current Anthropology, & New Zealand was much bigger than any other land the Polynesians had settled since jumping off … doi:10.2307/2546433. In R. C. Green & M. Kelly (Eds. Emory, K. P. (1970). The lore of the Whare-wānanga: Or, teachings of the Maori College on religion, cosmogony, and history. Return voyaging from Easter Island to CEP was possible when a climate shift restored easterly and northeasterly wind anomalies in the subtropical central Pacific at A.D. 1090–1120 and A.D. 1200–1250 (SI Appendix, Fig. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10963-017-9110-y, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10963-017-9110-y, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. It is possible that they either moved to Wairau Bar late in life, or were returned there after death for burial. Sutton, D. (1987). 1977). Napier in New Zealand’s Hawke’s Bay. Connections with Hawaiki: The evidence of a shell tool from Wairau Bar, Marlborough, New Zealand. A visit just to see the building itself is worthwhile as it is an architectural and engineering feat, rich with symbolism. 1994) that make it difficult to resolve sites into a tight chronological sequence. Modeling the prehistoric Maori population. The second part of our ‘strategic migration’ model is concerned with colonisation—the spread and establishment of populations, and the process of connecting them into a socially and economically viable colony. 109, 18350–18354. This makes New Zealand the last major land mass settled by humans. 41, 555–556. Journal of Pacific Archaeology, Wellington: Department of Internal Affairs. Anderson (1991, p. 790) was also aware of the implications of a rapid widespread appearance of sites, and noted that planned mass migration—not unlike the Norse settlement of Greenland—could not be ruled out as an explanation. Sorrenson, M. P. K. (1977). 3, 1–40. In fact, New Zealand is one of a very few cases in world migration where the homeland could not provide any support services and such services were locally unavailable—at least in the first years of settlement. Mass migration … Murray-Mcintosh, R. P., Scrimshaw, B. J., Hatfield, P. J., & Penny, D. (1998). New Zealand (Māori: Aotearoa [aɔˈtɛaɾɔa]) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island (Te Ika-a-Māui) and the South Island (Te Waipounamu)—and more than 700 smaller islands, covering a total area of 268,021 square kilometres (103,500 sq mi). This is a conservative growth rate for a colonising population below environmental carrying capacity (Steele et al. Most of the individuals outside of Group 1 had strontium isotope signatures that were close to those determined for the local environment, based on determinations of the archaeological dog population from the site. As discussed below, the migration does not seem to have been ecologically or demographically driven, which leaves socially defined agendas as the most probable motivating factors (e.g., Anderson 2006). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, A theory of migration. A., Buckley, H. R., Walter, R. K., et al. 2). 2013, p. 8). ... New Zealand, Polynesia. This is double an earlier estimate based on similar methods by Murray-McIntosh et al. J World Prehist 30, 351–376 (2017). Seelenfreund-Hirsch, A. Like those sites, Wairau Bar was a permanent village, located to provide safe access for deep-water sailing craft by residents who were participating in long-distance voyaging and exchange networks. 9, 335–348. Mass Migration and the Polynesian Settlement of New Zealand. Green, R. C. (1996). Subsequent immigration has been chiefly from the British Isles, but also from continental Europe, the Pacific, America and Asia. (1992). Glenda Lewis reports in the second and final article on human migration to this land. The Cook Islands—New Zealand connection. B., Wood, J. R., & Wilmshurst, J. M. (2014). ), Prehistoric long-distance interaction in Oceania: An interdisciplinary approach (pp. (2013). This paper reintroduces the concept of mass migration into debates concerning the timing and nature of New Zealand’s settlement by Polynesians. Furthermore, Holdaway and Jacomb (2000) showed that the extinction of moa occurred with astonishing rapidity, in a matter of 80–100 years, not after centuries of relentless human predation. 287, 2250–2254. Sinoto, Y. H. (1970). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Redemption songs: A life of Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki. Memoirs of the Polynesian Society, 3 & 4. The sources of the ‘Lore of the Whare-Wananga’. Obsidian, colonizing and exchange. The exploitation of Mayor Island obsidian in prehistoric New Zealand. They proposed that the Group 1 result is a reflection of an earlier dietary phase prior to arriving in New Zealand. An analysis of the exchange of lithics in settlement period New Zealand (fourteenth century AD) is used to throw light on the mechanisms of colonisation more generally. The people of Wairau Bar: A re-examination. Higham, T., Anderson, A., & Jacomb, C. (1999). (1985). (2014, p. 25) have demonstrated that the midden remains derive from a single cooking and discard episode and have argued that the oven feature was constructed and used as part of a ritual feasting event. Thus we can refer to this entire region as ‘Hawaiiki’ and describe it as a period and place of relative prosperity and innovation, when long-distance voyaging linked islands into a dispersed community of culture. The survey ship Tory left for New Zealand in May 1839 to purchase land and prepare settlements for the emigrants the company was recruiting. We briefly review the Wairau Bar site before turning to the evidence for mass migration. 1913) synthesised disparate traditions and fragments of whakapapa gathered from different parts of the country to create historical narratives that more closely accorded with European notions of history. (2011). An accent on atolls in approaches to population histories of Remote Oceania. 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