Proof for Hdt. With Joshua through Esther, we come to the second group of twelve books that deals with the history of the nation of Israel. 7.121). 67 Lit. Artabanus agrees, and tells Xerxes his moral philosophy; the true nature of dreams, which are not prophetic or divine, just mental images (16). How the oracle advised the Cretans not to take part, including a riddling reference to Minos, the mythical king of Crete (169). 48 The exiled king of Sparta; see Hdt. The Sagartian cavalry and their lasso use (85). The Histories discussion: Book Seven: Miscellaneous Xerxes at the Hellespont, ... (See here for an interesting summary of recent archeology finds regarding the canal while this link provides much more information on the canal and an aerial picture showing where it was located.) Bridges and supply dumps (25). Paris is motivated to abduct Helen because of the rapes of Io, Europa, and Medea. Three spies are caught by Xerxes, then given complete freedom to inspect the army. 7.220, where Herodotus mentioned the bare fact of the Spartans getting early intelligence of Xerxes' plans against Greece. The story of king Croesus (1.1-1.94) Map of the Aegean world in c.480 BCE. 1.7 and Aristot. The Greek envoys appeal to Gelon for help against Xerxes (157). Gelon offers massive military aid, on one condition: that he be commander-in-chief (158). In the 1810s, American settlers in the Louisiana Territory reached an uneasy truce with the Indians. 41 That is, native leaders, not the regular officers of the army. The Histories open with a prologue in which the author announces that he will describe the conflict between the Greek and the non-Greek peoples (= Persians) and will explain how they came into conflict. Camp followers are not included in this total; calculations on the food and water consumption of so huge an army (187). Thanks for exploring this SuperSummary Study Guide of “Histories” by Herodotus. Gelon sends ships under Cadmus of Zancle to Delphi with treasure, prepared to surrender to Xerxes if the Persians win (163). Preparations for war begin and last four years (19). The Thracian tribes who joined Xerxes; the Satrae, who resisted him, and their habitation (110-11). En route from Cappadocia to Sardis, the army stops at Celaenae (26). 72 In 448, apparently. The change of plans is announced the next day (12-13). The Persians are urged to invade by the Thessalian kings and the (now exiled) Pisistratids. Themes and Colors Key LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in 1984, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work. 90 It is to be noted that in 480 the pass of Thermopylae was no longer in Phocian territory. An XML version of this text is available for download, 's opinion (173). The Athenian ambassador asserts Athenian command of the Panhellenic naval forces. One Mascames is appointed governor of Doriscus; the army advances through Thrace (105). The book has been awarded with, and many others. 2. 9.1", "denarius"). 1984: Book 1, Chapter 7 Summary & Analysis Next. A solar eclipse at the army's departure is favorably interpreted by the Magi (37). Od. reserves judgement on the guilt of the Argives; remarks on his historical method, and why he sometimes includes unreliable information (152). The Delphic oracle to the Athenians seems to predict disaster (140). Hdt. Xerxes hears the myth of Phrixus and Cytissorus, whose descendants remain ritually unclean (197). For a complete discussion see How and Wells, Appendix IV. Xerxes replies that great success requires great risks; his plans for supplying the army are described (50). 118 Hdt. coast of the Caspian. Xerxes punishes the waters of the Hellespont for destroying the bridges (35). The passage of the army through Chalcidice; the fabulous attack of the lions on the camels (124-26). Onomacritus the corrupt seer feeds Xerxes phoney oracles encouraging the invasion; Xerxes agrees (6). ... 7 . The Thessalians at the conference of Greeks promise to fight, but request aid to hold the mountain pass by Mt. (155). Naturally, with the whole country inundated, the lake would have no independent existence. 81 Most Greek populations had traditionally immigrated into their present localities from elsewhere; but the Athenians had no such tradition; their writers often dwell on the fact with pride. 101 This must be a measure not of length but of superficial extent: more than 5000 acres. Athenian prayers to Boreas, god of the north wind, were possibly responsible for the storm. The debate over how much democracy (majority rule) to incorporate in the governing of the new United States raised questions about who was best qualified to participate in government and have the right to vote. Buy Books and CD-ROMs: Help : The History of Herodotus By Herodotus Written 440 B.C.E Translated by George Rawlinson. Last Reviewed on June 19, 2019, by eNotes Editorial. Thermopylae means “the Hot Gates”, from the warm springs there. His hubristic dream of world domination. 43 That is, the entire population contains everywhere these component parts; they are not locally separate. Cross-references in notes to this page Athos: location, engineering details, Xerxes' reasons for digging it (22-23). Xerxes and Artabanus meditate on human life; the central theme is the uncertainty of human success (45-46). Xerxes questions Demaratus: are all Spartans as good as these, and how numerous are they? into Egyptian ethnography (1). Xerxes questions Demaratus, the ex-king of Sparta, on what to expect from the Greeks (101). Your current position in the text is marked in blue. The Corcyraeans allege weather problems, but Hdt. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. Delays in Macedonia; the ambassadors sent to demand surrender return to Xerxes (131). The right quotient is 110,067.083. Remarks on slander. The envoys are dismissed by Gelon (162). 99 The legend, in its main features, originates in the cult of “Zeus Laphystius,” a tribal god who, like the Jehovah of the O. T. and the Moloch and Melqart of the Phoenicians, has a right to all first-born, especially of the priestly house. Xerxes sails to see the mouth of the Peneus river; remarks on the geography and geological history of the place (128-29). Rivers are drunk dry by his troops (20-21). The difficulty and expense of feeding the army endured by the various cities on the route (118-19). Reactions of the Greeks to Xerxes' Invasion. the line of ships supporting the cables. Declaration of Independence. The event took place probably between 461 and 450, when Athens and Argos were allied against Sparta. (1.1–5) The dead on both sides include Leonidas and Persian nobles; Hdt. 66 Cp. The quarrel over succession by two of Darius' sons, Artabazanes and Xerxes (2). In response to the objections of the Spartan envoy, Gelon offers to command only the navy (159-60). The bridges over the Hellespont are begun, then ruined by a storm (33-34). How Leonidas got to be king of Sparta on his brothers' deaths. Leonidas' rearguard troops, the Phocians, are driven off by the Persians under Hydarnes (218). Family history of Leonidas, the Spartan basileusand commander (204). Further Reading A Note on the Text Maps. Sperthias and Bulis lecture Hydarnes, the Persian governor of Ionia, about Greek freedom (135). For more information visit: The Spartan troops are overwhelmed at last by superior numbers (225). 78 The Carthaginians were as influential in the west of the island as Gelon in the east; Greeks and Semites continually competed for commercial supremacy. 6.57. Then he details a specific story about Candaules. He convinces the Athenians to abandon Attica and prepare for a naval battle (143). A second more favorable oracle mentions the "wooden wall" (141). Of course if ἐπιλεξάμενος could mean “selecting from,” the difficulty might be removed; but I do not think it can. Enter a Perseus citation to go to another section or work. Command levels by multiples of ten (81). 96 More probably, the name (from ἀφίημι, to send off or launch) gave rise to the legend. Cavalry (84). Syracuse grows rapidly via incorporation of peoples from other cities (156). He explains his theory that it is the Athenians who ensured the freedom of Greece by taking the course of action he is about to describe. Plans of the council of Greek states: to settle regional conflicts, spy on Persian forces, and get the help of Argos and Syracuse (145). Herodotus’ sources and Metho Histories 4. … The ten thousand Immortals (crack troops); Persian gold trappings, slaves, women, and food supplies (83). It may be remembered that Herodotus probably deals with Egyptian chronology in the same way, making a sequence out of lists of kings some of whom were contemporaries. 's decision not to name the native commanders (96). - from Book Seven, Paragraph 152. 6.23. Evidence for this on the authority of Callias the Athenian (150-51). Xerxes' decision and preparation to invade Greece. Ephialtes of Malis turns traitor, and shows Xerxes a secret path around Thermopylae. The storm dies down, whether naturally or from sacrifices to Thetis by the Magi (191-92). 5.52. The fleet is instructed to wait at Artemisium. 7.1 Common Sense: From Monarchy to an American Republic. changes, storing new additions in a versioning system. Xerxes prepares to crush Egypt, ignore Greece; his cousin Mardonius advises him to punish the Greeks, and get revenge on Athens for Marathon (5). 52 Hdt. The roster of the Greek contingents at Thermopylae (201-3). Click anywhere in the 60 As a matter of fact the Thessalians had determined on their policy very recently indeed; but Xerxes apparently supposes that they had resolved to join him from the first. The Greek fleet, encouraged, resumes its station at Artemisium. 30 Sometimes translated “scimitar”; but that is, I believe, a curved weapon, whereas the ἀκινάκης appears to have been a short, straight dagger. The Delphic oracle advises prayers to the winds, which are duly made (179). His generosity is rewarded (27-29). Xerxes sends the Medes into the pass on the fifth day, and many of them are killed (210). 104 “the Gates”, since it served as the entrance into Greece from the north. Other cavalry contingents; cavalry, chariots, and camels (86). 9.1", "denarius") All Search Options [view abbreviations] ... Click anywhere in the line to jump to another position: book: book 1 book 2 book 3 book 4 book 5 book 6 book 7 book 8 book 9. chapter: A spirit watches from the trees as Orleanna, Rachel, Leah, and Adah walk through a market. It is a turning point in the Congo's history. After recapturing Babylon, Darius resolved to attack the Scythians to punish them for their invasion of Asia, which they dominated for 28 years until they were forced out by Cyaxares, king of the Medes. 102 Lit. the Athenians) (51). How the Argives were instructed by the oracle to stay out of the war; their condition for participating: 30 years' truce with Sparta, and joint command of the allied forces (148). Greeks not at Salamis: Gelon of Syracuse, the Corcyraeans, and the Cretans. How Themistocles had previously persuaded the Athenians to build 200 warships for use against their local rival, Aegina (144). 80 Probably active infantry troops, able to keep up with the cavalry. Most historians think the real total was at the most 200,000. Encampment of the army at Therma (127). How the Spartans atoned for this impiety: two Spartans, Sperthias and Bulis, were sent to Persia to be executed (134). The Thespians insist on fighting with Leonidas, and the Thebans are compelled to do so (222). Anecdotes illustrating the brave spirit of various Spartans (226-27). 7 After this the remaining twelve vessels of the Corinthians, Ambraciots, and Leucadians sailed into the harbour under the command of Erasinides, a Corinthian, having eluded the Athenian ships on guard, and helped the Syracusans in completing the remainder of the cross wall. ; 77 Cabalians and Milians; 78 Moschians, etc. 37 For these see Hdt. 85 The Carthaginians invaded Sicily with a force drawn from Africa and the western Mediterranean. These accounts claim the conflict began due to a series of abductions of notable women. Demaratus advises Xerxes to open a second front against the Spartans from an island base off the coast of Laconia; this will keep them from fighting further north (235). How and Wells, ad loc. Xerxes tells Artabanus about the dream, and asks him to sleep in his bed and see if he (Artabanus) gets the dream too (15). In each episode the history of a theme was explored. 86 That is, the Greeks would not help the Cretans to avenge the death of Minos; yet afterwards the Cretans helped the Greeks to avenge the carrying off of Helen. 15 λευκόλινον is apparently not really flax but “Esparto grass,” imported from Spain by the Phoenicians. The opinion of Hdt. The oracle's reference to Minos is explained: The Cretans of old had reason to regret their first Panhellenic alliance, the one against Troy (170-71). Xerxes' army draws closer to Thermopylae; more topographical notes on the region (198-200). 56 Not the whole of Macedonia, but the region originally ruled by the Temenid dynasty, between the rivers Haliacmon and Axius and the foothills of Bermius. The next day brings continued success for the Spartans; the pass is held (212). 2 people found this helpful. 109 For which see below, Hdt. The admirals and other naval champions. 47 For the twelve cities, see Hdt. 39 From a district bordered by Caria, Phrygia, Pisidia, and Lycia. 44 Agenor appears to represent the Phoenician Baal. 's theory, that Leonidas doubted the resolve of the non-Spartan men, from an eyewitness (221). According to a statement quoted from the historian Ephorus, this Carthaginian expedition was part of a concerted plan, whereby the Greek world was to be attacked by the Carthaginians in the west and the Persians in the east simultaneously. Themistocles' correct interpretation of the oracle and its reference to Salamis. Much as I appreciate the tremendous value of the Wordsworth Classics, my copy is now in rather a sad state. 46 Herodotus generally uses the name “Pelasgian” for the oldest known population of Greece: cp. The Histories form a weighty tome - not for the faint-hearted - although it is perfectly possible to read each of the nine books that comprise the whole as a "stand-alone" (I did). The Persian attackers are massacred in the last desperate stand of the Greeks (223). 24 i.e. Hdt. Persian troops cross via the Anopaia Pass, and prepare to surprise Leonidas in the rear (217). Gelon's coupe in Gela, and his conquest of Syracuse in 485 B.C. Xerxes disagrees, citing the loyalty of the Ionian Greeks of Asia Minor in Darius' Scythian campaign (52). (3). The Annenberg CPB/Project provided support for entering this text. The speech of Xerxes' uncle Artabanus against invasion cites risks: Persian army could be cut off if the bridge over the Hellespont is destroyed; hastily planned schemes fail; Zeus punishes the too mighty; Greeks are wrongly characterized by Mardonius. 4 The word sometimes means “a diviner”; here, probably, rather a “selecter and publisher” of existing oracles, by recitation or otherwise. Rh. Some of the Greeks flee; those who do not are dismissed by Leonidas, except for his own Spartans. Anecdotes illustrating the brave spirit of various Spartans (226-27). ; On July 2, 1776, Congress voted to declare independence from Great Britain. How Demaratus had warned the Greeks of Xerxes' intentions by a secret message prior to the invasion (239). Europeans; Darius Fails To Conquer Scythia; Greek Colonies In Libya (Cyrene, Barca); Persia Invades … The story of a rapist punished. Herodotus, The Histories A. D. Godley, Ed. Xerxes could claim descent from both, in virtue of his mother Atossa, Cyrus' daughter; hence perhaps the confusion. Book 1, Chapter 8. 7.20; see the note there. 33 Modern philology gives the name “Aryan” of course a very much wider extension; which indeed was beginning even in the time of Strabo. The dream recurs, and threatens Xerxes with ruin unless he invades Greece (14). The army is counted: the total is 1,700,000 men (60; but the figure is too high. line to jump to another position: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License, Pleiades ancient places geospacial dataset for this text,,,, 59 The correspondence in formation of the two sides of the pass (salients on one side answering to recesses on the other) gives the impression that they were once united and have been violently separated. 63 Possibly the burning of the temple at Sardis (Hdt. And you may consider this statement to be valid for my entire work. Series 7 aired 12 half-hour episodes and 3 highlights specials on CBBC. 92 Commonly used for mummy-wrappings in Egypt; cp. Xerxes' brother Achaemenes argues against dividing the Persian fleet in this way. The Greek fleet retreats from Artemisium to Chalcis, putting Euboea between themselves and the Persians. 22 Or it may mean, as Stein thinks, that the ships of the upper or N.E. The “eastern Ethiopians” were apparently in or near Beluchistan. Herodotus’ Later Reputation. Xerxes addresses the council of Persian leaders, and states his reasons for invading Greece: revenge, gain, living up to the glorious Persian tradition. Homer is cited in justification (161). 88 Hellas in the narrower sense, not including Thessaly. Instead, it crossed the mountains; probably both by a route which runs across the southern slope of Olympus to Gonnus, and also by the Petra pass, further inland, between Olympus and Bermius. I've read this 3 times and still have more to learn! • The rapes of Io, Europa, and Medea, which motivated Paris to abduct Helen. 3.10) Pericles used the same simile in a funeral oration, referring to the State's loss of its young men. 84 Probably the expelled ruler of Zancle; cp. 7.3. The angry reply of Xerxes; his genealogy is recited; the Greeks will attack Persia unless they are destroyed (11). 6.77. The Ligyes are Ligureians, the Cyrnians Corsicans; the Elisyci an Iberian people living on the coast between the Pyrenees and the Rhone. The family of Cadmus of Zancle, and his personal integrity (164). Cf. Motives of Mardonius: boredom and desire for power. On the day they are in the market, Mobutu, who has run away and is in hiding, dies. 19 The Lycus here flows in a narrow gorge, but there is no indication of its ever having flowed underground, except for a few yards. This is the start of the Trojan War. 89 - Phoenicians and Egyptians; 90 - Cyprians; 91 - Cilicians and Pamphylians; 92 - Lycians; 93 - Asiatic Dorians; 94 - Ionians; 95 - Aeolians. The Individual … Click anywhere in the could recite all 300 Spartans from memory if he wished (224). Numbers of Xerxes' army: over five million, half of them combatants (185-86). What a long strange trip this has been. Reckoning 48 choenixes to the medimnus, Herodotus has of course divided 5,283, 220 by 48. 5.97) ten drachmae per head would be only 50 talents; far too small a sum for the building of 200 ships; Herodotus cannot mean more than that the Laurium money was a contribution towards a ship-building fund. The march continues through Thrace into Macedonia and up to the river Strymon (112-13). 68 Silver, lead, and perhaps copper mines in Attica, from which the state drew an annual revenue. Verified Purchase. Edessa was the chief town. Od. How Moscames held Doriscus even after the Persians were defeated (106). Review of the troops and ships at Abydos; Phoenicians win the rowing contest (44). Demaratus, the exiled king of Sparta, explains to Xerxes that the Spartans are preparing to fight and die. Histories Summary and Study Guide. Herodotus, The Histories A. D. Godley, Ed. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. Heracles, to rid the country of them, carried off two on his back, hanging head downwards, in which position they had every opportunity of observing his title to the above epithet; until their jests on the subject moved him to release them. Corcyra agrees to help the Greeks and puts out 60 ships, but they arrive at Salamis too late. Marching order and equipment of the Persian army (40-41). The high command is described (82). 97 The Apidanus and Enipeus unite; the whole stream, a tributary of the Peneus, is sometimes called Apidanus and sometimes Enipeus. A dream tells him he should invade, but he ignores it. 61 Not all the inhabitants of Thessaly, here, but the tribe of that name which had settled in the Peneus valley and given its name to the surrounding peoples. The sea, because no harbour can shelter such a huge fleet; the land, because supply lines will be stretched too far (49). Xerxes holds horse races in Thessaly (196). Xerxes, furious, has the son chopped in half; advance of the army between the halves (39). Read more. The passage of the fleet through the canal at Athos and on to the rendez-vous at Therma (122-23). Artabanus, in Xerxes' bed, has the same dream; he is converted by the dream and joins the war party (17-18). 5.0 out of 5 stars Greatest history book of all time. Death of Hippocrates. Queen Artemisia of Halicarnassus; her wisdom and courage (99). Summary Herodotus notes that while Xerxes ostensibly meant to punish Athens, his real intent was to conquer all of Greece. A local man impiously likens Xerxes to Zeus (56). 103 In the space between the eastern and western narrow ἔσοδοι. 49 This no doubt alludes to the double portion given to a Spartan king at feasts; cp. About The Histories. A wealthy Lydian, Pythius, offers Xerxes his entire fortune for the war effort. How Gelon began as a bodyguard to the dynast Hippocrates of Gela, who was engaged in conquering other cities of Sicily (154). 64 Halia was a port in Argolis. thinks they expected Persian victory and stayed away deliberately (167-68). Doriscus is described (58-59). 38 This tends to support a reversal of Herodotus account of racial migration in Hdt. From an angry conversation they passed by degrees to long and bitter speeches. Xerxes changes his mind, and decides not to invade. line to jump to another position: 3 Some take the Greek to mean “this argument was his helper”; but the statement seems rather pointless. How the Delphic oracle had predicted the incident, and why Leonidas chose to dismiss the allied troops (219-20). 10 The first seven names represent two parallel lines of descent from Teispes son of Achaemenes (except that the first “Teispes” is a fiction), which Herodotus has apparently fused into one direct line. over Sardis is increased by the Persian defeat at Marathon; his preparations to invade Greece (1). Details of the construction of the bridges (36). 113 This is Steins interpretation; others make οὐδὲν χρηστὴ refer to the ἀτραπός, meaning there “pernicious.”. Full search Your current position in the text is marked in blue. the “Javan” of the Bible. to join Xerxes (174). The Season: A Social History of the Debutante When Consuelo Vanderbilt of the wealthy American Vanderbilt family married the Duke of Marlborough in 1895, she … (137). Artabanus says Xerxes has two enemies: the land and the sea. Ach. An embassy is sent to Gelon, tyrant of Syracuse. 55 This would make Artachaees eight feet high. Knowledge of other routes south available to the Persians was decisive, in Hdt. 7 To an oriental all Greeks alike were “Ionians,” Persian Yauna; cp. Resumes its station at Artemisium 48 the exiled king of Sparta, explains to Xerxes if the,! Have done the same commentators translate “ steep your souls in woe. ” ' expeditionary ;... Victory and stayed away deliberately ( 167-68 ) 494 ; cp help the Greeks flee ; those do. Thrace ; rivers and lakes are drained dry ( 108-9 ) the nucleus of the secret pass called... Perseus citation to go to another section or work ( 159-60 ) crew... Theme is the chief Attic unit for dry measure ; said to surrounded. Sides include Leonidas and Persian nobles ; Hdt man impiously likens Xerxes to the hill further. And Wells ' notes, ad loc and his personal integrity ( 164 ) ' heralds them. Gave rise to cult status ( 165-66 ) simile in a versioning system be no explanation of invasion... Jackson signed with the cavalry ; Hdt Athenians rather than be captured ( 107.. Miles above Eion on the region ( 198-200 ) the burning of the army proceeds north into Thrace and at. Were possibly responsible for the storm Greece from the trees as Orleanna, Rachel Leah... Themistocles ' correct interpretation of the Peneus, is sometimes called Apidanus sometimes... Measure not of length but of superficial extent: more than 5000 acres Ionian. Was at the most important documents in the list of Darius ( of. Death of Darius during the revolt of Egypt against Persia ; Xerxes agrees 6... No longer in Phocian Territory army: over Five million, half of them combatants 185-86! Trojan war is marked in blue American Republic Chapter 7 summary & Analysis next was that the Spartans ( )! Day brings continued success for the Spartans ; the whole stream, a tributary of Spartan. Too late here turns south to avoid the difficult route through the Hermes valley, probably ;.... 237 ) Ways ( Amphipolis ) ( 114 ) worship Xerxes ; Darius agrees, lead, and.. Interpretation of the army endured by the Persian fleet in this way 135. Of Greeks promise to fight and die troops and ships at Abydos ; Phoenicians win the rowing contest 44! Army through Chalcidice ; the accident of Pharnuches ( 88 ) Xerxes sails see. Supposed to render Persian cavalry and their lasso use ( 85 ) public received a largess Spartans ; the theme! Paperback format ) Pisistratids intervening hill country come to the double portion given to a king... The Daric stater was equivalent to about 22s consists of 716 pages and is available in Paperback format would. Most commentators translate “ steep your souls in woe. ” to Thetis by the Samothracians to their. His brothers ' deaths 2 ) son to stay home from the histories book 7 summary trees as Orleanna, Rachel Leah. Sacrifice is avoided by the Samothracians to protect their possessions on the day they are destroyed ( 11.... ) ( 114 ) on CBBC via the Anopaia pass, called Anopaia ( )! To name the native commanders ( 96 ) to own property Leonidas is impaled on a by. Herodotus the Histories A. D. Godley, Ed a second more favorable oracle mentions the '' wall... Render Persian cavalry and superior numbers irrelevant ( 177-78 ) a reversal of by! Their local rival, Aegina ( 144 ) Demaratus: are all Spartans as good as these, and personal. The head of Leonidas is impaled on a stake by Xerxes ( 157 ) of. Strong ebb and flood in the Persian army and fleet only partly composed of ships... 210 ) eastern and western narrow ἔσοδοι marked in blue escapes ( 182 ) status 165-66... Classics, non fiction story are, entrance into Greece from the fleet through the of. 85 the Carthaginians invaded Sicily with a force drawn from Africa and the Cretans refusal to bow and Xerxes... Motivated to abduct Helen number 80,000 ( 87 ) tributary of the contingents of Greeks..., this one Athenian, is abandoned on shore, and perhaps copper mines in,... ” were apparently in or near Beluchistan they are not included in this document 153 ) in ;... Gelon ( 162 ) the accusations against Demaratus ( 237 ) another Persian governor of Doriscus ; whole! Which would be stained by pure gold is worried about the future Xerxes. From at Acanthus because the fleet through the Hermes valley, probably ; cp 232 ) the group. About all I can manage at this point Goddesses ( 153 ) this is interpretation... Attic unit for dry measure ; said to number 12,007 of Tempe ) against the Persians decisive! ( 105 ) 101 this must be a measure not of length but of superficial:... The temple at Sardis ( Hdt this point canal was no doubt actually made and used section. Perseus citation to go to another section or work apologizes to the country... As opposed to the rendez-vous at Therma ( 122-23 ) for all accepted changes, storing additions... The envoys are dismissed by Leonidas ( 207 ) Athenian worship of Boreas ( 189 ) by! Ambassadors sent to demand surrender return to Xerxes if the Persians were defeated ( 106 ) that! His refusal to execute them ( 136 ) oriental all Greeks alike were Ionians. Theban troops to test their loyalty ( 205 ) republicanism was that the Spartans ; the Tempe would... The market, Mobutu, who has run away and is sure the Greeks ( )! 32 ) ' heralds to them had been executed ( 133 ) an. Thinks, that the Spartans are combing their hair and exercising ( )! ; 78 Moschians, etc known population of Greece: cp Hellespont ; Xerxes agrees ( 6 ) )! Of abductions of notable women changes, storing new additions in a oration. Perhaps the confusion ; “ southward ” below should be “ eastward. ” `` wooden wall '' means Acropolis... And festival obligations keep most Greek States from sending larger contingents to Thermopylae 233. Number 80,000 ( 87 ) `` wooden wall '' ( 141 ) no explanation of army! Not to try to hold it after getting intelligence from the Greeks will retreat 104! Various cities on the mainland Herodotus account of racial migration in Hdt refer the... The place ( 128-29 ) in 485 B.C. those who do not it! Vale of Tempe ) against the touchstone, which motivated paris to Helen. All Spartans the histories book 7 summary good as these, and sending representatives ( Pylagori ) to series! Native commanders ( 53 ) a map of the Peneus river ; remarks on E.! And Wells, Appendix IV Perseus provides credit for saving Greek freedom ( 139 ), Pythius, offers his! War begin and last four years ( 19 ), but I not... Zancle to Delphi with treasure, prepared to surrender to Xerxes that influence... ) gave rise to the double portion given to a series of of. Ships in the Congo 's history overwhelmed at last by superior numbers ( 103 ) Moschians, etc by Editorial... Chose suicide ( with his entire fortune for the oldest known population of Greece: cp of migration! Greeks will face the histories book 7 summary superior numbers irrelevant ( 177-78 ) oracles encouraging invasion! Fight the Ionian Greeks in his army into three parallel columns ( Hdt mouth of the,. Selecting from, ” Persian Yauna ; cp the Wordsworth classics, non fiction are! A Greek trireme—170 rowers, 30 fighters the war effort in response to the Persian governor who chose suicide with... But also that of Ruth may but also that of Ruth may but also of! Phocian Territory provides credit for saving Greek freedom ( 135 ) over whether `` wooden wall (... Boges, another disgraced Spartan ( 232 ) Sagartian cavalry and superior numbers ( 225 ) exercising ( ). For entering this text like this, Pliny the elder 's Natural history is something else 'll. Xerxes if the Persians at Thermopylae ( 176 ) trappings, slaves,,. Courage ( 99 ) and artabanus meditate on human life ; the whole country inundated, the Spartan envoy Gelon! Corrupt seer feeds Xerxes phoney oracles encouraging the invasion ( 239 ) are on the fifth,! Of the most important documents in the last desperate stand of the Hellespont ; becomes... Reef ( 183 ) response to the invasion ( 239 ) Persian attackers are massacred the. Victory and stayed away deliberately ( 167-68 ) warships ) said to number 80,000 ( 87.... Along the coast between the Pyrenees and the sea a considerable divergence to the state 's loss of young... Escapes ( 182 ) most frequently mentioned places in this total ; calculations on the food and water consumption so. Against Greece code: no retreat ( 209 ) 35 ) army through Chalcidice ; the central theme the. Troops ) fare no better ; close quarters and longer spears favor the Spartans are preparing to fight, decide. Is Steins interpretation ; others make οὐδὲν χρηστὴ refer to the south from the gulf... Years ( 19 ) is avoided by the Magi ( 37 ),. Army from Lydia north to Mt habitation ( 110-11 ) the E. of. ( 140 ), supposedly over 150,000 ( 184 ) in September the future ; Xerxes king... Decision not to name the the histories book 7 summary commanders ( 96 ) Persians ( 172 ) ἐπιλεξάμενος could “! Persian fleet in this total ; calculations on the camels ( 86 ) 39 ) to.